Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige <p><em>Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige</em> är en vetenskaplig tidskrift som följer, dokumenterar, granskar och debatterar forskning inom det pedagogiska kunskapsområdet. Tidskriften vänder sig till alla som är intresserade av pedagogiska frågor, men riktar sig särskilt till forskare, lärare, doktorander och studerande vid universitet och högskolor i Sverige och övriga Skandinavien.</p> sv-SE (Redaktionen) (Bettina Vogt, redaktionssekreterare) ons, 19 sep 2018 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 60 Formeringen av det pedagogiska kunskapsområdet <p>Saknas</p> Eva Forsberg, Daniel Sundberg ##submission.copyrightStatement## fre, 21 sep 2018 13:16:51 +0200 Två artskilda perioder för pedagogisk forskning <p>How might we explain and understand Swedish educational policy and the development of the Swedish school system, from the comprehensive, equality-oriented direction introduced in the early 1960s to the fragmented and divided system of today? In the following I will claim that two fundamentally different educational policy periods can be discerned. The first coincides with the first three decades of the comprehensive school system, from 1962 to 1989, the second with the three decades from 1989/1990 to the present. These two periods have created quite different conditions for the work of schools, and also for educational research. The crucial reforms laying the foundations for the shift in educational policy between the two periods were heavily influenced and inspired by the transnational emphasis in the late 1980s on the individual rights set out in international conventions, implying a parental right to educational authority.</p> <p>In recent decades, the consequences of this shift have manifested themselves in a partly privatised and marketized school system, characterised and driven by a logic clearly distinguished from the ideals and aspirations underpinning the struggles of the earlier period for a democratic and equality-oriented school system.</p> Tomas Englund ##submission.copyrightStatement## fre, 21 sep 2018 13:25:41 +0200 Skolans statliga uppdrag <p>What tasks constitute the basis of the mission that the school as an institution is expected to fulfill in the Swedish society? In this article, I attempt to problematize that question. Few would oppose the notion that the school’s mission includes passing on knowledge as well as social norms. But what kind of knowledge should be put first in the day-to-day activities, and which social norms can and should be given priority? I argue that the school’s mission can be divided into two basic categories, here labeled <em>competence development</em> and <em>cultural reproduction</em>. The aim of the former is to educate the students with present and future societal needs in mind, focusing on growth ­– i.e. preparing the future labor force, taking macroeconomic and production factors into account. The task of cultural reproduction, on the other hand, is based on the notion of liberal education, where the aim is to reproduce societal values such as cultural heritage, democracy and citizenship. The difference between these two categories and their respective goals creates a number of tensions, resulting in a high degree of complexity in the daily school activities. Nevertheless, there are areas where the two categories at least partly intersect, meaning that the possibility of reaching a consensus does exist.</p> Gunnar Berg ##submission.copyrightStatement## fre, 21 sep 2018 13:30:39 +0200 Pedagogik, institution och kunskapsobjekt <p>This essay, <em>Educational science, institution, and epistemic objects</em>, includes comments on two themes: “Educational science from university discipline to field of knowledge”, and “Searching for the epistemic objects of educational science”. The approach is partly autobiographic. Taking 1968 as starting point, the institutional conditions and transformations of educational science as a university discipline in Sweden are outlined, primarily using one of the larger departments of education as a case. The analysis highlights the substantial expansion and differentiation that characterize the development and places it within a university reform context. The second theme goes further back in time and highlights the historical roots of education as a university discipline. Epistemic objects of the Herbartian tradition are discussed, as well as of the expanding experimental psychology at the time of the first chair of educational science in Sweden. The great expectations after the Second World War for a new school are outlined together with growing research traditions, highlighting classroom language and the teaching process. In the diversified research landscape of the last decades, studies of curriculum theory, education policy, and history of education are emphasized and a plea is made for critical studies of history and education based on broad theoretical perspectives.</p> Agneta Linné ##submission.copyrightStatement## fre, 21 sep 2018 13:33:02 +0200 Pedagogik blir pedagogik och didaktik vid Stockholms universitet <p>This article is primarily based on my experiences as professor of Education during the last years of 1990 and first years of 2000, being appointed professor in 1992 and becoming emerita in 2005. With a background in psychology and a licentiate thesis in this discipline I had to tackle the question of the relationship between psychology and education in 1969 when I left psychology for education as academic subject. During the period which I overview a number of new positions as professor, appointed as well as promoted, were important as were adjunct professors, recruited to bridge the gap between academy and society at the department. The two main tasks of a university, education and research, came to be in important ways related to a third task – the cooperation with the world outside the academy, We recruited important persons from abroad as doctors of honors, which improved the quality of research as well as the variation of content in courses. My own interest within what I prefer to name Educology concerns primarily childhood culture and the possibility to interpret its importance with the help of theories of socialization and knowledge formation, which in my case have an origin in psychology of perception and philosophy. What has happened at the department from 1969 (starting as a lecturer), via the appointment as professor 1992 and to my retirement 2005 is viewed from my perspective with focus on events that are of importance for my experience. I have taken up some important authors who are not always acting within the discipline of Educology, or even education, but rather important as challengers in a broader sense. I finish my article with a focus on future development, pointing out possibilities to broaden as well as identifying new important challenges, without losing scientific ambitions.</p> Birgitta Qvarsell ##submission.copyrightStatement## fre, 21 sep 2018 13:35:54 +0200 Pedagogisk forskning vid Göteborgs universitet 1963 – 1975 <p>The article is a personal text about pedagogical research and the department of education at the University of Gothenburg in the years 1963 - 1975. In the beginning there was a thin line of demarcation between departments of education and psychology. Only a corridor separated them. The research within education was characterized by studies related to the ongoing reforms of the school system. Several of the studies that carried out gave a scientific base for the education policy. These led to the foundation longitudinal studies.</p> <p>During the period, the research community changed. Funds for research groups were added and a new doctorate exam was introduced. During the first years of the period, the university was small and there was free access to all study courses. I followed the seminars in General and Comparative Ethnography and Theory of Science. The University was rather small.&nbsp; Towards the end of the period, universities had more than doubled the number of students and it was barely understandable variety of subjects and programs. The departments in psychology and education had different profiles and attracted different student groups.</p> <p>Initially, research was often an individual project with none or little of financial support. There were no education programs for doctoral students. In the year of 1975 there was a completely different organization for research; with research groups, and doctoral studies was a specific study program.</p> <p>Finally, my purpose was to describe the growth of the university system – with the University of Gothenburg in focus – during the period 1963 – 1975 in general and how education as science was formed in particular.</p> Ulf P. Lundgren ##submission.copyrightStatement## fre, 21 sep 2018 13:39:12 +0200 Pedagogiskt arbete som tvärvetenskapligt forsknings- och utbildningsfält <p>The academic subject Pedagogic practices is quite young. At Linköping University, it has existed since the late 1990s in teacher education. In 2000, it was established as a research subject and the first PhD students were accepted. The background to the subject's presence can be sought both nationally and locally. As regards the national background, a natural starting point is the Teacher Education Committee’s final report. Teacher education should have a connection between undergraduate, postgraduate and research. For example, in addition to already established research areas such as Education, a research ”subject” with a multidisciplinary orientation may constitute an orientation. The description of the field of pedagogic practices was lett open, and we indicated that it was inappropriate to give a clear definition of the term. Instead, the area should find its shape in retrospect through the activities that will be undertaken. What we saw was a central area of competence in the present, which in our opinion was about the experience of moving between the normative and the descriptive. We, as our specialty, wanted to see this to establish a link between the practical aspects of professional work and various theoretical frameworks. This should be developed in the light of the education’s high school skills and the research that was built around teacher education. We suggested that practical education and research were considered activities such as is in a conceptual field where practical and interdisciplinary relevance forms two axes. To strive for all teaching and research at the same time to be of high practical use, and in-depth relevance, would be inappropriate. What should instead be pursued was that the practical education and research area as a whole ranked optimally between the two extremes. Well worth discussing is how a practical field of research, such as pedagogical practices, should relate to theories in general. To what extent should the research be theoretical or practical? Do we want to see a research that works deductively or inductively? However, we think that in practice we have shown that this can work and result in a good postgraduate education.</p> Glenn Hultman, Bengt-Göran Martinsson ##submission.copyrightStatement## fre, 21 sep 2018 13:42:32 +0200 Från studerande i pedagogik till forskningsledare i utbildningsvetenskap <p>The first part of the article reports a few daily reflections from my last years of work focusing the teacher role, the researcher role, the administrator role and the role of the teacher/researcher in third stream activities. The progress can be summarized quite negatively - less time dedicated to heterogeneous student groups, changing opportunities to achieve analytical and critical skills, increased governance in scientific achievements, reduced collegial "power" and reduced interest to be engaged in third stream activities. The second part of the article is about the relationship between education/pedagogy, didactics/curriculum studies and educational science. Didactics was discussed as part of improving research basis for prospective and active teachers. One conclusion is that more than fifteen years of discussion hardly favored the subject of education, but highlighted the importance of subject didactics. Another conclusion is that neither the introduction of educational science became the solution to research appeals for teachers and teacher education as originally thought. Accordingly, more than thirty years of discussion first about finding the relationship between pedagogy and didactics and then to clarify the relationship to educational science has hardly led to any illumination regarding the boundaries of the subject of education.</p> Christina Gustafsson ##submission.copyrightStatement## fre, 21 sep 2018 13:44:54 +0200 Didaktiken som en ny, utbildningsvetenskaplig skärningspunkt <p>För drygt hundra år sedan frigjordes de pedagogiska frågorna från den filosofiska domänen. 1910 tillträdde Bertil Hammer som vårt lands förste professor i pedagogik. Ett av de skäl som angavs för denna professur var lärarutbildningens behov av vetenskaplig förankring. Hammer skrev fram ett ambitiöst program, där pedagogiken skulle omfatta kunskaper om lärande (psykologi), kunskaper om utbildning och samhälle (historia/sociologi) samt kunskaper om vad som kan anses rätt och gott (filosofi).</p> <p>Det skulle dock gå många år innan hela detta program realiserades fullt ut. Pedagogiken förblev fram till 1950-talet förankrad i psykologin. På 1960-talet diskuterades de sociala aspekterna allt livligare (en diskussion som inom disciplinen började med Urban Dahllöfs arbeten och sedan utvidgades, med delvis annan riktning, av Ulf P. Lundgren), och först på 1990-talet slog de filosofiska aspekterna igenom (med början i Tomas Englunds pragmatiska inriktning, följt av bland andra Klas Roth).</p> <p>1996 inrättades landets första professur i didaktik, intressant nog med liknande motivering som den första professuren i pedagogik – i syfte att stärka lärarutbildningens vetenskapliga grund. Då jag tillträdde denna professur var det pedagogiska landskapet som ett slagfält med åsiktslinjer och skyttegravar, och jag fick diverse frågor om vilken sida jag stod på: pedagogikens eller didaktikens, didaktikens eller ämnesdidaktikens, det pedagogiska arbetets eller utbildningssociologins sida och så vidare. Men min uppgift var inte, som jag såg det, att välja sida. Snarare ville jag som ämnesföreträdare utveckla något nytt. Det vid den tiden nyvaknade intresset för ämnesdidaktiska frågor (som Ference Marton redan under 1980-talet hade diskuterat i termer av fack-didaktik), liksom de professionsorienterade frågorna, utgjorde en ny fond för mitt intresse. Härutöver utgjorde frågor om språk, social-semiotik och multimodalitet ett intressant område för att förstå kunskapsrepresentationer och lärande, något som också utgjorde ett nytt perspektiv på frågan om lärande: synen på lärande som teckenskapande och meningsskapande kommunikation i stället för en fråga om individuell begåvning, kapacitet eller förmåga. Men ämnesdidaktiken bidrog även med kunskaper kring lärande av olika kunskapsområden, vilket i sin tur gav upphov till nya frågor jämfört med synen på lärande som en generell förmåga. Och allt detta påverkade i sin tur synen på lärararbetet.</p> <p>Så småningom sammanlänkades allt detta för mig i ett design-orienterat perspektiv på undervisning och lärande. Jag vill berätta denna historia ur ett högst personligt perspektiv. Hela det didaktiska fältet är mångfacetterat och fyllt av allehanda traditioner. Här vill jag berätta om min egen väg – i termer av tre olika ”vändningar”. Dessa vändningar är förstås påverkade av sin tid, men i viss mån har jag också bidragit till dessa vändningar.</p> Staffan Selander ##submission.copyrightStatement## fre, 21 sep 2018 13:47:10 +0200 Symboliska teknologier och lärande i en digital tid <p>During the past half-a-century the education sector has grown in size and significance in most parts of the world. In what is talked about as a knowledge or information society, the time spent in educational institutions increases. One of the most important game-changers for education, and for educational research, is digitization and the growing reliance on digital resources in most activities in our daily lives. One of the many consequences of this development is that children early on in their lives make use of and adapt to digital media. It is argued that in this new media ecology the classical questions we ask about access to education and success and failure will continue to be important for educational research. At the same time, education as a discipline should consider the profound ways in which our knowledge and skills rely on coordination with symbolic technologies; we increasingly know by and through such resources, and this insight should guide the development of instructional practices. In addition, we should contribute to a debate about what “Bildung” and critical citizenship should be in a world which is going increasingly digital. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Roger Säljö ##submission.copyrightStatement## fre, 21 sep 2018 13:49:12 +0200 Samhällsförändringar, globalisering och internationell och jämförande pedagogik <p class="PFSNormal" style="text-indent: 0cm;">Utbildningen och dess funktion i ett land kunde länge förstås utifrån ett holistiskt, nationellt perspektiv. Verkligheten har emellertid förändrats väsentligt under de senaste decennierna – ofta på oförutsägbara sätt, främst på grund av den tilltagande globaliseringen. Utbildningssystemets huvudsakliga uppgift har varit att kvalificera människor för deras roller som producenter, konsumenter och medborgare. Men numera förväntas utbildningen också alstra humankapital som är konkurrenskraftigt globalt (Brown, Halsey, Lauder &amp; Stuart Wells, 1997a, 1997b). Detta har förändrat villkoren för forskningen och undervisningen inom jämförande och internationell pedagogik (JIP) (Crossley &amp; Watson, 2003).</p> <p class="PFSNormal">Under de sex, sju decennier som JIP existerat som en särskild disciplin har ämnet genomgått väsentliga förändringar – från spridda småskaliga (och ofta amatöristiska) fallstudier – ofta av något utbildningssystem eller några få skolor – och enstaka storskaliga och kvantitativt orienterade studier, till ett brett forskningsfält med alltmer heterogena objekt eller ämnen och en kombination av metodiska och teoretiska ansatser. Min forskning började med studier av utvecklingsproblematik och inlärning i låginkomstländer i Afrika och hamnade till sist i globalisering, omstrukturering och styrning av utbildningssystem.</p> <p class="PFSNormal">Den här artikeln försöker ge en schematisk översikt över utvecklingen inom JIP under de fyra, fem senaste decennierna. Först beskriver jag några av samhällsförändringarna och vilka begrepp, objekt, teman etccetera som tillkommit sen 1960- och 1970-talen på JIP:s forskningsagenda. Därefter tar jag upp några av JIP:s teoretiska och metodologiska ansatser.</p> Holger Daun ##submission.copyrightStatement## fre, 21 sep 2018 13:51:16 +0200 Kontextuellt tänkande om pedagogik <p>I denna artikel betonas behovet av, och möjligheten med, ett kontextuellt tänkande om pedagogik. Kontextuellt tänkande är ett genomgående tema som lyfts fram i inledningen och avslutningen av artikeln. I ett huvudavsnitt om pedagogikens historiska utveckling lyfts två inslag fram, övergången från pedagogik som filosofi till pedagogik som vetenskap, respektive skillnaden mellan en variabelbaserad och en fallbaserad vetenskaplig kunskapsbildning om pedagogik. I ett andra huvudavsnitt diskuteras vad som är pedagogikens kunskapsobjekt, hur pedagogikens kunskapsområde kan avgränsas, samt den institutionella inramningen av pedagogisk forskning. Artikeln avslutas med en sammanfattning av det viktigaste i det som framförts.&nbsp;</p> Lennart Svensson ##submission.copyrightStatement## fre, 21 sep 2018 13:53:42 +0200 Pedagogik med inriktning mot yngre barns utveckling och lärande <p>The professorship I held was denoted "Pedagogy with a focus on the development and learning of younger children". It was a newly instituted professorship at the Teacher Education Program at the newly founded university college in Malmö. The purpose was dual - to further develop research related to children’s development and learning in pre-school as well as to contribute to the academization of the pre-school teacher education. It was initiated by the director of the Teacher Education Program, and was placed at the department responsible for preschool teacher education.</p> <p>In this article, the professorship´s purpose and orientation will be discussed in a historical perspective. It considers significant aspects of the development of the program for pre-school education, such as practical pedagogy, knowledge traditions, and gender. In addition, it suggests that the development of this program was characterized by a complicated relationship to the state as well as the academy, involving efforts to reconcile both sides. The article also discusses the late nationalization of this program and why a professorship was established in 1999 to support research and academic development. Other themes discussed, with examples from my own work as researcher, expert, and teacher, are the terms and conditions of the research area, special initiatives, and continuity and discontinuity.</p> Ingegerd Tallberg Broman ##submission.copyrightStatement## fre, 21 sep 2018 13:56:02 +0200 Lärarna och lämpligheten <p>Education of teachers and teacher competence has been an important field since the establishment of Pedagogy as science. This article relates to research concerning teacher competence and conditions for admission to teacher education. The purpose is to identify what is characterized as ineligible in connection with admission to teacher education, in assessing becoming teachers’ pedagogical actions, and in professional teachers’ vocational practice.</p> <p>Within a research group at Linnaeus University, we have in two projects studied the gatekeeping function to the teaching profession. The core of the projects consists of the assessment of eligibility that takes place before and during teacher training as well as during teachers’ professional practice.</p> <p>On admission to teacher education, it is mainly on communicative and relational grounds that an applicant may be deemed ineligible to become a teacher. In teacher education a didactical dimension is added as well as an analytical and reflective dimension, which means being able to reflect critically over practice on a scientific ground, or on ethical grounds. In teachers’ professional practice, shortcomings in communicative and relational competence as well as actions that contradict ethical grounds constitute predominant reasons for being considered ineligible. Shortcomings in educational skills are generally handled at school level.</p> Per Gerrevall ##submission.copyrightStatement## fre, 21 sep 2018 13:58:22 +0200 Pedagogiken och lärarna <p>Många ser antagligen pedagogikämnet som läraryrkets teoretiska kunskapsgrund. Relationen mellan universitetsämnet pedagogik och lärarutbildningen har dock alltid varit ansträngd. Även om lärarutbildningens behov var ett viktigt motiv för inrättandet av den första professuren i pedagogik i början av 1900-talet, har pedagogikämnet inte utvecklats till att bli den kunskapsbas läraryrket behöver. Bland annat genom att pedagogikforskningen i stor utsträckning ägnat sig åt utbildningsfrågor snarare än undervisning, framstår pedagogikdisciplinen mer som politikers och policyaktörers vetenskap än lärarnas. Lärarutbildningen och universitetspedagogiken är i stor utsträckning skilda världar och även om det undervisas i pedagogik på lärarutbildningarna så är det något annat än universitetsdisciplinen pedagogik. Detta skapar en oklarhet angående innebörden i <em>pedagogik</em>, som förutom universitetsdisciplinen pedagogik kan syfta på pedagogiken i lärarutbildningen eller olika pedagogiska skolor. En annan aspekt är att den oklara situationen försvårar utvecklingen av en för läraryrket egen och självständig kunskapsbas. Eftersom det finns en föreställning om att en sådan redan finns omvandlas problemet att lärarna saknar en egen vetenskap till att bli en fråga om att lärare inte använder den kunskap som finns.</p> <p>Artikeln beskriver några aspekter av pedagogikens utveckling – på universitetet såväl som på lärarutbildningen – med fokus på relationen mellan pedagogiken och lärarna.</p> <p>Avslutningsvis diskuteras inrättandet av utbildningsvetenskap och de möjligheter att tydligare urskilja olika pedagogiska kunskapsområden och därigenom realistiska förväntningar på vad dessa olika områden kan eller inte kan bidra med till läraryrket och lärarutbildningen.</p> Ingrid Carlgren ##submission.copyrightStatement## fre, 21 sep 2018 14:00:40 +0200 Efterord <p>Saknas</p> Leif Lindberg ##submission.copyrightStatement## fre, 21 sep 2018 14:03:06 +0200 Judit Novak – Juridification of Educational Spheres Guy Neave ##submission.copyrightStatement## fre, 21 sep 2018 14:31:58 +0200